1262. Garrulities of a Vulgar Arithmetician (G)
A. MS., n.p., [1892-94], pp. 1-5; 1-55, plus 33 pp. of variants.
Reason for employing word "vulgar" in title. History of mathematics: the arabic system and its introduction into Europe; the chorazmian numerical system. Gerbert's life and work.

1263. Chronology of Arithmetic, with references to the collection of Mr. George A. Plimpton to the Astor Library, and to other available collections (Arithmetic)
A. MS., n.p., [1904], pp. 1-6.
History of Babylonian and Egyptian arithmetic. Pythagoras. Definitions of "arithmetic," "number," "theoretical arithmetic," "practical arithmetic," and "vulgar arithmetic."

1264. Outline of a Brief Chronology of Arithmetic
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-7.
A list of mathematicians, their works, and significant dates. See MS. 1543.

1265. Note on Recorde's Ground of Artes
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 2 pp.
Speculation by CSP on the date the book was composed.

1266. [Introduction to and Translation of the Preface of an Arithmetic by Rollandus]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 13 pp.
See G-1894-1.

1267. [Sixteenth Century Mathematics and Mechanics in Italy]
A. MS., n.p., [c.1892], 3 pp.
This manuscript may possibly be for the History of Science Lectures of 1892-93.

1268. The Chronology of Mathematics of Josephus Blancanus 1615 (Blancanus)
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-3, 9-13.


1269. The History of Science (HSi)
A. MS., G-undated-5 [c.1892], pp. 1-55, with 12 pp. of variants.
Published, in part, as 7.267n8. Introductory remarks on the principles that underlie this attempt to write a history of science. CSP relies on his independent opinion in several areas, but notes deficiencies in several others including classificatory physics ("weakest spot"), mineralogy, crystallography, and biology. Candid evaluation of his knowledge of other sciences, e.g., geology and linguistics. The remaining pages concern the Egyptians and their science. The pyramids and the hypotheses of Egyptologists; failure of Egyptian mathematicians to understand fractions (errors in calculation of areas and volumes); the general stupidity of the Egyptians.

1270. (HS)
A. MS., n.p., [c.1892], pp. 1-3.
Egyptian science and the typical Egyptian.

1271. A Sketch of the General History of Science
A. MS., n.p., [c.1892], 6 pp.
Egyptian science. Two kinds of men: men who worship ideas and men who worship force.

1272. (HS)
A. MS., n.p., [c.1892], pp. 1-21; plus p. 2 of another draft.
Earlier draft of MS. 1269. Engineering as a propaedeutic to science. Egyptian science: the Great Pyramid; the lack of theoretical interest among the Egyptians reflected in their failure to advance scientific knowledge; "irrefragable" proof of Egyptian stupidity.

1273. (HS)
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 2-20.
Another early draft of MS. 1269. Page 2 continues first page of MS. 1272.

1274. Lecture I. General Review of the History of Science
A. MS., n.p., [c.1892], 5 pp.: plus 1 p. of another draft.
Apparently an early draft of the introductory remarks to the twelve lectures delivered by Peirce on "The History of Science" at the Lowell Institute, 1892-93. Peirce mentions having published a memoir on the logic of relations 23 years ago. The date of this manuscript is, accordingly, c.1892.

1274a. Lecture II
A. MS., n.p., [c.1892], 7 pp., incomplete.
Lecture II recapitulates Lecture I. It praises Whewell's work in the history of science and denounces, by way of contrast, Mill's Logic. History of science and evolution. The question of necessitarianism.

1275. [On the Early History of Science]
A. MS., n.p., 1892, pp. 1-92.
Presumably for Lecture I or Lectures I and II of the Lowell Institute Lectures of 1892-93. The oldest scientific book in the world: Book of Aahmes. Babylonian astronomy. Thales, Anaximander, Anaximenes, Pythagoras and his school, Aristotle, Euclid, Archimedes. The development of statics. Sharp criticism of Eduard Zeller's history.

1276. Lecture III
A. MS., n.p., [c.1892], pp. 101-128, incomplete.
Presumably Lecture III of the Lowell Institute Lectures of 1892-93. Lecture II discussed the Great Pyramid. Herschel's theory accounting for the angles of slope of the entrances to the pyramid is a glorious example of bad reasoning. Lecture II seems to have closed with mention of Aahmes. Lecture III continues with some examples from Aahmes, stressing the awkwardness and stupidity of the way sums were done. Aahmes' knowledge of summation of a geometrical series. Brief comment on Egyptian chemistry and medicine.

1277. Lecture V
A. MS., G-1892-4, pp. 1-51.
Presumably Lecture V or a draft of the fifth lecture of the Lowell Institute Lectures of 1892-93. Published, in part, as 7.267n8 (pp. 4-6). There is a reference to the preceding lecture, which concerned Chaldean astronomy. Further remarks on the Chaldees and their scientific superiority over the Egyptians. The Greek mind: sly, distrustful of induction, passion for unity. Thales and Pythagoras. CSP's criticism of Zeller's account of Pythagoras and the Pythagoreans. Cf. MS. 1275.

1278. Lecture VI
A. MS., n.p., [c.1892], 34 pp.; plus 47 pp. of notes and fragments.
Lecture VI of the Lowell Institute Lectures of 1892-93. On German historical criticism of ancient texts and the general problem of historical testimony. The ancient biographies of Pythagoras. The scientific and mathematical achievement of Pythagoras. CSP's theory of the "miracles" of Pythagoras.

1279. Lecture VIII
A. MS., n.p., [c.1892], pp. 1-35.
Lecture VIII of the Lowell Institute Lectures of 1892-93. On the life and works of Archimedes. A long digression on terminology: the words "million," "billion," etc.

1280. Lecture IX
A. MS., n.p., [c.1892], pp. 1-58, with a variant p. 14.
Lecture IX of the Lowell Institute Lectures of 1892-93. Survey of the post-Hellenic period. The failure of the Arabs to make any contribution. Semitic imagination regarded as passionate and poetical but requiring restraint in order to make scientific contributions. The beginnings of modern western science. Scientific activity is arrested by the discovery of Aristotle's nonlogical writings and the subsequent conviction that the study of Aristotle was essential to salvation. The rise of the universities. The thirteenth-century manuscript of Petrus Peregrinus (CSP claims he was the first to translate all of it).

1281. Lecture X
A. MS., n.p., [c.1892], pp. 1-14, incomplete.
Lecture X of the Lowell Institute Lectures of 1892-93. Nicholas of Cusa. Comparison of the Ptolemaic system with the heliocentric system of Copernicus. The weakness of the Copernican theory and Kepler's corrections of it. Copernicus commits a common error of rhetoric by attempting too much in one book.

1282. [Lecture XI?]
A. MS., n.p., [c.1892?], pp. 1-36, with 3 pp. of variants.
Possibly Lecture XI of the Lowell Institute Lectures of 1892-93. Galileo's life and achievements. A very rough description of Galileo's experiments, hampered by the lack of scientific log-books of that day. CSP questions how far Galileo was an experimentalist, observing that Galileo's model of logic was Archimedes.

1283. [Lecture XI?]
A. MS., n.p., [c.1892?], pp. 1-18.
A fuller treatment of the experiments of Galileo than in MS. 1282. CSP ends with an emotional appeal that the treatment accorded Galileo not be repeated. "Ah! Ladies and Gentlemen, it is a bitter thing to be put into the world by God to do a special great piece of work, to be hungering and thirsting to do it, and to be prevented by the jealousies and coldness of men." And: "Do not fancy that the blocking of the wheels of progress is confined to by-gone times and to strange countries."

1284. Keppler
A. MS., n.p., [c.1892?], pp. 1-16; plus drafts(s) of 8 pp. and 2 pp.
This manuscript may have been intended as a lecture to follow the one on Galileo. Reference to Kepler's curiosity, imagination, and great work on Mars.

1285. [Fragment on Kepler's work on Mars as well as the work of Copernicus and Brahe]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp., 1-22 (pp. 12, 14-15 missing), unfinished, with discarded pp. 3 and 7.

1286. [Concluding Remarks to Lectures on the History of Science]
A. MS., TS., G-1892-4, pp. 1-8.
Published in entirety as 7.267-275, with the exception of 7.267n8.

1287. [The History of Science from Copernicus to Newton (1543-1686)]
A. MS., two notebooks, n.p., [1902].
Both notebooks are headed "Lecture I." In one (pp. 1-21), CSP notes that his primary interest is in the history of the doctrine of universal mechanical necessity. What follows is a discussion of the pyramids, providing, in the main, the same material as found in MS. 1269. The other notebook (dated August 1, pp. 1-29) seems to be an earlier draft of the notebook described above. The apparently later of the two notebooks is directly continued by part of MS. 1300.

1288. The Principal Lessons of the History of Science (LHS)
A. MS., G-c. 1896-3 [sup(2)G-c.1896-3], pp. 1-47.
Published, in part, as 1.43-125. Unpublished: on blocking the path of inquiry; Ockham's maxim and its relationship to nominalism; an error on Carus' part concerning planetary distances and motions.

1289. The Chief Lessons of the History of Science (LHS)
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-4.
On scientific integrity and the relationship between morality, essentially conservative, and science: "An early development of good morals, and still worse good manners, is unfavorable to science." Summaries of sections or chapters of a book.

1290. C. S. Peirce's Plan for A History of Science, in one volume (PHS)
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-14, with 2 pp. of variants and a draft of a letter to "Dear Sir" (n.d.) on the versos of these pages.

1291. Notes toward forming Plan of A History of Science in 100,000 words
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 8 pp.

1292. How Did Science Originate?
A. MS., n.p., [c.1899], 6 pp.
Intended as an article for Science. Science originates in Babylon, not Egypt, as is popularly supposed. The lack of scientific interest in Egypt.

1293. On the Origins of Science
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 2 pp.
The animal repeats roughly the history of the development of the species. People (or races) in their infancy have intellectual characteristics which are similar to those of a child.

1294. Egyptian Science
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 10 pp., unfinished; plus a second draft of 13 pp.
On Egyptian characteristics, both mental and physical. The Egyptians lacked generalizing power, but possessed engineering skill, as evidenced in the construction of the Great Pyramids. Also some caustic remarks directed toward the journal Scientific American which carried descriptions of inventions and advised on such matters as the removal of greasepaint.

1295. Comments on Aahmes
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-17; 1-5, 5 ("Aahmes. Table of Fractions of 2"); plus 1 p.
Criticism of Aahmes' calculations, with suggestions for improvement.

1296. Thothiana
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 7 pp.
Beginning of an article for the Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society on Aahmes and Egyptian mathematics. Explanation of the title of the article.

1297. [The Pyramids]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 2-7; plus 2 pp.
The Egyptian mind and character reflected in their language. An engineering people, but basically antiscientific.

1298. [Egyptian History; Chaldean Astronomy]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 4 pp.

1299. Babylonian Astronomy
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-10 (p. 4 missing).
The constellation figures are of Babylonian origin. CSP attempts to prove that Aratos obtained his material from ancient Babylonian astronomical writings (the globe described by Aratos would have been the one that was visible in Babylon c.2000 B.C., not that of Greece in the 3rd century B.C.).

1300. [Notes on the "Phenomena of Aratos" and on the "Classification of the Sciences"]
A. MS., notebook, n.p., December 22-25, 1902.
The first thirteen leaves of the notebook are a direct continuation of the second of the two notebooks of MS. 1287. Additional notes on practical science and the classification of instincts.

1301. The Phainomena or 'Heavenly Display' of Aratos by Robert Brown
Annotations by CSP occur throughout the pages (pp. 13-55) torn from Brown's book.

1302. The Horizons of Aratos
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 1 p.; plus 3 pp. ("Phenomena of Aratus").

1303. [Random Notes on Egyptian and Babylonian Science]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 10 pp.
Engineering interest in the pyramids, with an aside on the inability of the Egyptians to take a joke. Greek thought and humor. Burlesque as beginning with the Greeks.

1304. Analysis of the Almagest
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 601-622.
Notes on several chapters of Ptolemy's work.

1305. The Constellations
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-5, 1-2.
Star catalogues: the beginning of a discussion of Ptolemy's work.

1306. The Ptolemaic System
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-4, incomplete; plus 11 pp. of fragments.

1307. Notes on Ptolemy
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 7 pp.

1308. [Fragments on the History of Science]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 10 pp.
Velocity and virtual velocities. Statics and dynamical statics.

1309. Notes on Medieval Science
A. MS., notebook, n.p., n.d.

1310. Prospectus of "The Treatise of Petrus Peregrinus"
Proofs of G-c.1893-4, corrected and annotated, 18 pp.; with 61 pp. of notes and translations and with two transcriptions of the Paris MS. 7378, one in CSP's hand and the other in the hand of M. Tissier.

1311. [On the History of the Lodestone]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 2-6.

1312. Of the Age of Campanus
A. MS., n.p., 1901, 5 pp. A draft of G-1901-3.

1313. Note on the Age of Basil Valentine
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-16; 1, 5-16, 11, 11, 15; 1-9; a variant p. 2; 1 p.; and a memorandum from CSP to someone in the Coast Survey.
An attempt to show that Valentine was really the editor Th^lde, a chemist and member of the Rosicrucian Society. Alchemy.

1314. [Fragment on Galileo and the Development of Dynamics]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 2 pp. and 5 pp.

1315. [Fragments on Madame Curie and the Discovery of Radium]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 3 pp.

1316. The World of Science (Science)
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-3, incomplete.
Kelvin and Galton.

1317. [History of Logic and Scientific Progress]
TS. (corrected), n.p., n.d., 3 pp.
Two schools of logic, German and English, represented by Hegel and Mill respectively.


1318. Rienzi, Last of the Tribunes
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-8; plus 10 pp. of other attempts.
CSP treats Rienzi as a kind of fourteenth-century Robespierre.

1319. Materials for the Study of Napoleon
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 1 folded sheet (2 pp.).

1320. [Notes on Arthur Levy's Napoleon intime (Paris: 1893)]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-3, 7-13, 15, 18-29; plus 28 pp. of alternatives and fragments.
See G- 1893-4.

1321. [Sir William Thomson, Lord Kelvin]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-7.
See sup(1) N-1907-5.

1322. [Thomas Huxley]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 1-5; 5-9; plus 2 pp.

1323. [Dr. Wolcott Gibbs]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 5 pp.


1324. [On the Chronological Dissection of History]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 5 pp.
Kinds of years: solar, lunar, lunisolar, etc. The Gregorian and Dionysian calendars. Some of this material is for the Century Dictionary article "Year."

1325. Ages of the World
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 3 pp.; 2 pp. ("Natural Periods of History"); 2 pp. ("Natural Divisions of History"); plus 9 pp. of other attempts to list significant dates.

1326. Note on the Gothic period
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 2 pp.

1327. History of Astronomy: Diurnal Motion
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 1 p.
Note on Ptolemy: a correction of his data.

1328. [Remarks on the History of Ideas]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 25-34, with an unfinished p. 22.

1329. (Univ)
A. MS., n.p., n.d., pp. 17, 19-20, 23, 26, 27 1/2, 28, 30, 73, 75-82, with other pages on the same subject matter placed here.
History of the universities. From drafts of a letter to Mr. Francis Lathrop. See correspondence.

1330. [The State of Science in America]
A. MS., n.p., [1880], pp. 1-13.
An address delivered after a Fourth of July dinner in Paris. Why science in America has made such little progress. Johns Hopkins as an institution of science favorably compared with Columbia, Harvard, and Yale. The distinction between practical and theoretical men an American distinction for which CSP blames the colleges and the clergy.

1331. [Notes on White's History of the Warfare of Science with Theology]
A. MS., small notebook, n.p., June 8, 1896. See G-1896-2. The notebook also includes notes on Basil Valentine [see G-1898-4] and some notes on acetylene gas.

1332. Note on the Earliest Work of Experimental Science
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 4 pp.
History of science. Mathematics and the inductive sciences. The relation of science to the legal profession, to theology, to art and literature, and to business and banking. The general hostility toward science.

1333. [Fragments]
A. MS., n.p., n.d., 8 pp.
History of science mainly. One page is entitled "Analysis of an induction." Material on existential graphs on the versos of several pages.